4G The fourth generation of mobile technology with advanced requirements. 4G usually includes a family of advanced technologies enabling bandwidths of over 100 Mbps
5G The fifth generation of mobile technology achieving higher bandwidths than 4G, driving greater mobile availability, extremely reliable large-scale networking of devices, lower latencies, bandwidths of 1 Gbps – 2 Gbps, and lower energy consumption by batteries. 5G adoption will drive the expansion of the Internet of Things
ACRA Analytical Credit Rating Agency
API (Application Programming Interface) An interface between two different applications so that they can communicate with each other, used to simplify the use of outputs from one application in another application (for example, the use of a public map service in a delivery application)
ARPU Average revenue per user
B2B Business-to-business
B2C Business-to-customer
B2G Business-to-government
B2O Business-to-operator
BDD Bridging the Digital Divide national programme
Big data Large amounts of varied structured and unstructured data efficiently processed by horizontally scaled software tools
CAGR Compound average growth rate
Capex Capital expenditures for acquiring or upgrading non-current assets
CDN Content Delivery Network, a large online network of servers geographically distributed across several data centres to serve content to end users with high availability and high performance
Cloud services A model for enabling on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources
CRM Customer Relation Management software
DDoS(Distributed Denial of Service) An attempt to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources.
Digital Economy The Digital Economy of the Russian Federation programme approved by the Russian Government’s Decree dated 28 July 2017
DLDTN Domestic long-distance transit node
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
EBITDA Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortisation (an evaluation metric, also known as pre-tax profit)
FCF Free cash flow
FOCL Fibre-optic communications line
FTTB (fibre-to-the-building)/FTTx Broadband network architecture using optical fibre to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications
GC Group of companies
HQ Headquarters of PJSC Rostelecom
IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards
IoT/IIoT (Internet of Things /Industrial Internet of Things) The internet-based interconnection of devices embedded in everyday objects enabling them to send and receive data
IP/MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching – a routing technique in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, thus avoiding complex lookups in a routing table
IPTV A system through which television services are delivered using the internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as a LAN or the internet
Issuer An entity or an individual issuing securities to support and finance their business
IT Information technology
IZTN Inter-zone transit node
KPIs Key performance indicators
Last mile Final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end users
LTDP Long-Term Development Programme
MRF Macroregional branch of PJSC Rostelecom
MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) A telecommunications operator that does not own the mobile network infrastructure over which it provides services to its customers under its own brand
NFV (Network Functions Virtualisation) Virtualisation of physical network elements of a telecommunications network
NPS (Net Promoter Score) An index reflecting consumer loyalty to a product or company (likelihood to recommend) and used to gauge repurchase intent
O2O (operator-to-operator) Rostelecom’s project, Operator for Operators, aimed to offer network infrastructure support, operation, and development services to other operators
OIBDA Operating income before depreciation and amortization (an evaluation metric)
OSS/BSS (Operation Support System / Business Support System) An umbrella term describing software applications that support internal business processes of telecoms operators
OTT (over the top) Delivery of video signals from a content provider directly to a user’s device over the internet bypassing an operator
Pay TV Subscription-based television services provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite television, as well as via digital terrestrial and internet television
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PON Passive Optical Network, a cost-efficient broadband technology
ROIC Return on invested capital
RPS Rostelecom’s Production System
RRS Rostelecom Roznichnye sistemy (Rostelecom Retail Systems)
S&A Subsidiaries and affiliates
SDN (Software Defined Network) An approach facilitating computer network management
Smart Home A high-tech solution for integrating diverse household systems under artificial intelligence control
Smart TV An advanced television set with integrated internet and digital interactive feature
Subscriber An individual or an entity with a valid contract who has used any service entailing data traffic, a subscription fee, or a service charge in the past six months
TEA Transit Europe–Asia terrestrial cable system
TMT Telecom, Media, and Technology
TSR (Total Shareholder Return) Return on investment in equity
Utilities Utilities
VAS Value Added Services
VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) A technology creating a virtual IT infrastructure to deploy full-scale workstations on a single server hosting multiple virtual desktops
vIMS (Virtualised IP Multimedia Subsystem) An architectural framework for delivering IP-based multimedia services
VoD (video on demand) A technology enabling customers to select and view content any time they need. VoD is often delivered to television sets and desktops over IPTV
VPN/IP VPN A virtual private network for expanding a dedicated network through a public network (the internet), enabling desktops to send and receive data via a shared or public network as if the desktop was directly connected to the private network, while taking advantage of the public network functionality, security policy, and management capabilities
Wi-Fi Wireless local area networking (WLAN) of devices
Yarovaya law A package of laws, including: Federal Law No. 374-FZ, On Amendments to Federal Law On Countering Terrorism and Individual Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation with regard to Establishing Additional Measures to Counter Terrorism and Ensure Public Safety, dated 6 July 2016.

Federal Law No. 375-FZ, On Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation with regard to Establishing Additional Measures to Counter Terrorism and Ensure Public Safety, dated 6 July 2016